The tooth has three main layers: 1) enamel, which is the translucent outer layer, 2) dentin, a soft yellow layer just underneath the enamel, and the 3) pulp, which is the innermost layer that encompasses the nerves and blood vessels that belong to that tooth.
Cavities are caused by bacteria on your teeth that consume the sugar you eat, which they digest to produce acid, which then eats through your enamel, dentin, and eventually, the pulp if untreated. Your healthy tooth is ideally fully mineralized. When the acid eats through tooth structure, your tooth becomes demineralized. Remember, this process has to start on the outer layer (enamel) and work its way inward.
“Cavities” begin by having an acid (usually from the bacteria in plaque consuming sugars and giving off lactic acid) start to demineralize the enamel of the tooth. By acid, talking about ions of H+ from the acid, begin to break down the hydroxyapatite (which is made of Calcium and Phosphate) on the tooth.
Usually, the hydrogen ion begins to penetrate the surface of the enamel and starts to break the hydroxyapatite just below the surface of the enamel layer. At this stage, the future “cavity” looks like a “white spot” on your tooth, which is why they are called “white spot caries”.
If you looked at the surface of the enamel, you would see that the surface is still intact, in other words, “the roof of the white spot has not yet caved in”. At some stage, it is possible to stop and even reverse this “decay” with nano-hydroxyapatite and fluoride treatment. Opt for dental clinics in Hyderabad and get the treatment done. Reversible cavities are cavities that have affected the enamel layer but haven’t made it to the dentin yet.
These are ‘reversible’ because, with appropriate treatment, the demineralized enamel can remineralize and the cavity can be prevented from progressing. One of the most effective methods of remineralizing your teeth is exposure to fluoride, which can be found in most toothpaste and can be applied at higher concentrations at your dentist.
Keep in mind, success in this process depends not only on exposure to fluoride but also consistent and thorough oral hygiene practices (brush twice a day, floss once a day) to minimize the consequences of bacteria to your teeth. Visit a best dental clinic and get the treatment done under the expert’s observation.
Irreversible cavities are have affected the enamel and dentin layer. At this stage, it’s too late to stop the cavity from growing and making its way toward to pulp. If it affects deeply you might need to go for root canal treatment in Hyderabad.
Your last option at this point is to go to a dentist and have the tooth cleaned of all bacteria and filled to replace missing tooth structure with a strong filling material, such as amalgam (stronger, less esthetic) or composite (more esthetic, weaker than amalgam).