Peptides are small chains of amino acids made up of a specific sequence of 2-50 units. They can be used as drugs, proteins in foods, proteins in vaccines, and more. Peptides are often used to treat diseases that affect the immune system. Some examples include lupus, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Peptides can be produced in several ways, including de novo synthesis, recombinant DNA technology, and chemical synthesis. Peptide synthesis is the most common way of producing proteins used in medicine and biotechnology.
There are many applications for peptide synthesis, some of which are discussed below. One example is drug discovery, where scientists use peptides to understand how drugs work at the molecular level.
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How are peptides synthesized?
The first step in peptide synthesis is to create a nucleic acid sequence that encodes for the desired peptide sequence. The nucleic acids used for this purpose are DNA or RNA sequences that encode for the desired peptide sequence.
Once this step has been completed, the next step involves synthesizing the desired peptide using different amino acid building blocks. These blocks include aminoborane (Aib), cyanoborane (Cbz), cyanamide (Cmnn2), glyoxal (Gly), and cyanoacetamide (Cynac).
Applications of Peptide Synthesis
1. Medical imaging
The application of Peptide Synthesis in medical imaging is a new and exciting area of study. In the past, peptides have been used as imaging agents for several types of applications, including protein binding, gene therapy, and cell death detection. However, there are many ways in which this technology can be used to improve patient care.
Protein-based imaging agents are already used in many medical imaging techniques today. One such example is radiolabeled antibodies that bind to proteins or other biomarkers within the body so that they can be detected by MRI or PET scans. This technology has provided valuable information about disease progression and treatment efficacy.
Peptide synthesis also offers an opportunity to develop new and better biocompatible imaging agents that will enable physicians to monitor patients at home and detect changes in their health over time.
Since the discovery of insulin in 1922, medicinal chemistry has been developing at an exponential rate. It is now able to synthesize peptides and proteins, which are the building blocks of medicines.
The application of peptide synthesis in making medicines can be used to treat diseases such as cancer or diabetes. Peptides have several advantages over traditional drugs, such as they do not cause any side effects like allergic reactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs).
In addition, peptides can be administered orally and intravenously without risk of side effects. They are also effective and cost-effective in treating certain diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
3. Preservation of food
Peptides are stable compounds, which means that they don’t spoil or turn rancid easily. This property makes them ideal for being used in preservatives and storing food such as meats or vegetables that must be kept fresh before consumption.
Peptides are proteins that are small enough to pass through the skin but large enough to be absorbed into the body. They can be derived from plants or animals, but most are derived from plant sources, which means that they don’t cause allergies.
You may have heard that peptides act like hormones and can help your skin look younger and more supple by stimulating collagen production. This is true, but they do this when applied topically rather than ingested.
When peptides are ingested orally or injected into the bloodstream, they can cause an immune reaction in some people called peptidosis. So, if you want to use them in cosmetics, you must ensure they contain no allergens.
Nutraceuticals are distinguished by medicinal benefits that go beyond those provided by a standard diet. Polyunsaturated fats (such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids), antioxidants, probiotics, and prebiotics, which are bioactive peptides, are examples of these.
According to research, the digestion of protein precursors within a cell results in the creation of bioactive nutraceuticals. Enzymes, in addition to their role in digestion, help to create nutraceutical chemicals during food preparation processes like fermentation.
Protein expression service providers specialize in developing safe and effective bioactive nutraceuticals. To verify that their proteins are completely safe, certain protein expression service providers collaborate with manufacturers of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.
Peptides are used to treat disease in both peptide biopharmaceutical applications and drug discovery. Peptide medications that function in conjunction with the body’s hormones are being created with the assistance of DNA and gene synthesis companies. Custom DNA synthesis, which produces DNA strains with novel or modified base pairs, can be used to achieve unique and desirable properties in peptides and polypeptides.
Custom protein synthesis has enabled the creation of a wide range of peptide-based medicines, including those used in HIV prevention. Around 100 peptide drugs are in various stages of drug development and clinical testing, with more than 60 FDA-approved drugs in circulation since 2018. Companies specializing in DNA synthesis also create peptide-based cancer treatments by customizing protein synthesis for each patient.
Peptide synthesis involves creating sequences of amino acids for further medical use, and it has been instrumental in developing drugs like insulin. Several methods can be used to synthesize peptides, though they all have advantages and disadvantages.
For example, solid phase synthesis is fast and inexpensive, but it is unreliable since it creates numerous unwanted byproducts. On the other hand, solid-phase synthesis gives better yields with fewer side products than solution-phase synthesis.
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