The cleaning ability of the belt conveyor cleaner plays a pivotal role in improving the operating efficiency and reliability of the belt conveyor, reducing equipment failure rates and reducing maintenance costs. Therefore, choosing a suitable cleaner can effectively improve the efficiency and service life of the belt conveyor.
Table of Contents
- 1. The role of belt conveyor cleaner
- 2. Classification of cleaners
- 3. Common types and installation positions of cleaners
- 4. Main problems and selection principles of cleaners
- 5. Consequences of belt conveyor not being cleaned in time
1. The role of belt conveyor cleaner
During the operation of the belt conveyor, some materials or dust are inevitably attached to the surface of the conveyor belt, which cannot be completely unloaded by the unloading device. At this time, we need a cleaner to clean these attached materials. The cleaner is a cleaning device for the sticky and bulky materials of the belt conveyor. The main function of the cleaner is to reduce the excessive wear of the conveyor belt and reduce energy consumption.
1. Keep the conveyor belt clean, and ensure that the conveyor belt has enough friction on the drive roller to prevent the conveyor belt from slipping and the conveyor belt deviating;
2. Effectively reduce the wear of the conveyor belt and rollers caused by viscous materials, and effectively prolong the service life of the conveyor belt and rollers;
3. Ensure that the conveyor belt runs smoothly without jumping up and down, left and right and tearing the conveyor belt;
4. With the reduction of sticky matter, it can effectively protect the bearing rollers, brackets, transmission rollers, redirecting rollers, etc., ensuring normal operation and reducing the maintenance rate of conveying equipment.
2. Classification of cleaners
The cleaner of the belt conveyor can be roughly divided into three parts: head cleaner, middle cleaner and tail cleaner. They have different divisions of labor and roles.
1. The head cleaner is used for the cleaning work on the return belt of the belt unloading drum.
The cleaner is matched with the belt conveyor, and the cleaner is matched with a heavy hammer tensioner or a spring tensioner.
2. The middle cleaner is used to clean the non-working surface of the belt, and transfer as little as possible the sticky material on the lower belt surface to the lower idler and the diverting roller.
3. The empty section cleaner at the tail is responsible for cleaning the non-working surface in front of the tail of the belt conveyor.
3. Common types and installation positions of cleaners
There are many types of belt conveyor cleaners. Common cleaning devices include heavy hammer cleaners, spring cleaners, alloy rubber cleaners, rotary brush cleaners, empty section cleaners, cleaning rollers, hydraulic cleaners, and PUR polyurethane belts Cleaners, enclosed cleaners, carbide scraper cleaners, electric roller brush cleaners, electric vacuum cleaners, rotary cleaners, etc. It is also impossible to use all of them on the conveyor. Here are some commonly used cleaners.
The PUR polyurethane belt cleaner is installed at the driving roller of the belt conveyor. Its scraper is made of polyurethane composite material, which is integrally processed with a mold. The scraper surface is flat, with good straightness, low friction, high wear resistance, and high strength. It has a fairly stable scraping effect, which can effectively remove the fine particles and wet sticky materials on the residual belt. The pre-loading pressure regulator ensures the stable contact pressure between the scraper and the belt.
- The scraper can generally be used for 1 to 3 years and will never hurt the belt;
- The use of polymer polyurethane, coupled with better comprehensive mechanical properties, prolongs the service life of the product;
- The design is compact, the preparation is reasonable, the product is light, beautiful and easy to operate;
- The spare parts of the product are interchangeable and adjustable, which is more convenient for installation, debugging, replacement and maintenance.
The alloy cleaner mainly cleans small particles and their media, and the transported materials can be cleaned even if the humidity is above 5%. The carbide scraper cleaner is installed on the head of the belt conveyor. The scraper material is made of carbide. There are two types of single-piece and double-piece. The pressure of the scraper on the conveyor belt can be changed by adjusting the counterweight to achieve complete The effect of cleaning materials.
It has a novel structure, a unique buffer compensation device, good anti-shock vibration performance of the conveyor belt, good cleaning effect, and is not easy to damage the conveyor belt. It is also equipped with a high-function standard component system, including system support tubes, support tube extensions and elastic buffer devices.
The adjustment mechanism facilitates the adjustment of the contact pressure between the scraper and the conveyor belt, and adjusts the metal scrapers on both sides after the scraper is worn. The outside is in the shape of a descending arc, which can effectively prevent the edge of the scraper from damaging the smooth surface of the belt. The PE blade guard plate can well prevent material accumulation and scaling.
03. Empty section cleaner
The empty section cleaner adopts rubber plate or wear-resistant lining plate as cleaning plate, which can be made into “V” shape or “/” shape, and is installed on the return branch of the conveyor belt, on the upper side of the conveyor belt, near the tail roller, or vertically pulled. The tightening device is redirected to the roller. In order to compensate for the wear of the cleaning plate, springs are often used to automatically adjust the contact between the cleaning plate and the conveyor belt to ensure the quality of cleaning.
04. Rotary brush belt cleaner
Rotary roller brush cleaner is a new type of product. It has only been put into use in my country in recent years. It can effectively clean the surface of the roller and the bottom surface of the conveyor belt. The rotation direction of the nylon brush is opposite to the running direction of the return conveyor belt, so as to brush the particles that stick to the belt surface to achieve the purpose of thorough cleaning. It has been widely used in power plant coal conveyor belt, chemical industry, sugar refining, pharmaceutical, port and other industries.
The rotary brush cleaner is composed of a motor, a reducer, a cleaning roller, a coupling, a bearing seat, and an adjustment frame.
Its performance characteristics are as follows:
1. Integrated design, easy installation and adjustment, and strong applicability.
2. During the cleaning process, the tape will not be deviated.
3. Safe and reliable, long service life and low maintenance cost.
4. When the cleaner is working, the cleaning points are in continuous contact, the cleaning is powerful, and the cleaning effect is good.
5. Nylon brushes are processed and produced by special technology, which does not stick to materials and does not scale.
6. No wear to the tape, prolonging the service life of the tape.
05. Alloy rubber cleaner
The alloy rubber cleaner is installed at the head drum. It mainly relies on the elastic force of the rubber rod. At the same time, the scraper material is changed from rubber to cemented carbide. materials.
The gold rubber cleaner is mainly composed of a plurality of alloy scrapers, scraper racks, rubber elastomers, beams, adjustable fixing frames, etc. Its structure is simple and compact, and the distance between the scraper and the driving drum can be adjusted by adjusting the fixing frame. Then turn the beam shaft to make the contact pressure between the scraper and the driving drum reach 100-150N, and then lock the bolts.
The material cleaned by the alloy rubber cleaner will directly fall into the head cone of the continuous conveyor, and be conveyed together with other materials. There is no problem of material accumulation and material spilling on the return belt.
To achieve a better cleaning effect, the more mature experience at present is to increase the number of cleaners at the head drum and use them in combination. Such as alloy rubber cleaner P, H type combined use. Add a cemented carbide scraper cleaner; when the return conveyor belt enters the lower idler, the lower idler adopts a comb-shaped idler or a spiral idler or a V-shaped comb-shaped idler, which can achieve a better cleaning effect.
4. Main problems and selection principles of cleaners
During the installation and use of the cleaner, some problems are often encountered, such as the unsatisfactory effect of the cleaner, the rapid wear of the cleaning head due to the unreasonable design, and the hidden safety hazards caused by the improper installation.
The cleaners installed in some areas will also cause many safety accidents. In some places, 7 to 8 cleaners are installed at one cleaning point, but the actual cleaning effect is poor. After installing the cleaners in some areas, the belt joints are cracked, causing the overall belt to tear.
These problems are mainly caused by the following factors
- The selection of the cleaner is wrong.
- The installation position of the cleaner is wrong.
- The cutter head of the cleaner is not wear-resistant.
Principles for choosing a cleaner
- Installation position, Chute structure
- Position of conveyor belt and conveyor frame, position of pressure roller
- Conveyor belt speed and various surface conditions and quality
- Joint type, whether it is a two-way running conveyor belt
- Type and characteristics of conveyed materials, moisture content, particle size and viscosity of materials
5. Consequences of belt conveyor not being cleaned in time
The materials conveyed by the conveyor belt may have sticky substances, such as coal dust, mud, and powdery materials, some of which will stick to the working surface of the conveyor belt, which cannot be completely removed during unloading, and will stick to the idler as the belt runs , the long-term will cause the following consequences:
- The material enters the shell of the idler, thereby increasing the degree of bearing wear. The material on the idler shell will damage and roughen the surface glue of the conveyor belt, which will accelerate the damage of the conveyor belt.
- The sticky material enters the tail wheel and the reversing drum, and the material will stick to the surface of the drum, and the more sticky it is, the more it will cause the conveyor belt to deviate, aggravate the wear of the conveyor belt, and cause adverse consequences.
- The material sticks to the driving roller, increasing the friction force on the roller, which will cause damage to the surface rubber of the conveyor belt and the rubber coating of the roller.
- If the materials are not removed in time, a blanking area will be formed in the entire working channel, which will cause environmental pollution, increase the amount of cleaning labor, affect the physical and mental health of employees, and increase the cost of the enterprise.
Therefore, in order to ensure the normal operation of the belt conveyor, the attachments on the conveyor belt must be cleaned. The cleaner is an important part of the belt conveyor. It plays the role of cleaning the conveyor belt. The working effect of the cleaner will directly affect the working performance, state and service life of the belt conveyor. Choosing a suitable set of cleaners will not only make the belt conveyor work smoothly and reliably, but also prolong the service life of the belt conveyor.
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