In order to ensure that a software component or product is free of mistakes and problems when it is released onto the market, a tester must study, inspect, and assess its features after development. All the skills necessary for this process can be mastered in manual testing courses.
So, what is manual testing?
Manual testing involves manually testing an application – it’s literally in the name. Without utilizing any automation tools, the assigned tester manually runs each test case before verifying the findings. It mostly aids in verifying the application’s quality by making sure it complies with system requirements.
Manual testing is still necessary for a variety of reasons.
Here are the most popular of them:
1. Human viewpoint
Only humans can view and assess the application’s fundamental usability and look and feel.
2. A broader viewpoint and different system procedures
A larger view of the entire application is something that can be provided by manual testing. Since the human mind will never be a coding system that repeats the same processes over and over, it will always exist in an exploring state.
3. Automation costs
A lot of projects favor fast manual validation over automated testing since there are situations when the prolonged efforts for automation are not efficient given the dates or scope of the project.
4. Unexpected situations
Numerous scenarios may not be worth automating or may not provide a meaningful indication of user behavior when only tested via automation.
Manual testing remains to play an important role in the agile software development cycle’s validation stage. It can be unclear when to conduct manual testing or what circumstances would lead us to choose this approach.
There are three most common contexts in which manual testing can be used:
- unplanned or ad-hoc testing;
- usability testing;
- exploratory testing.
Let’s now examine the exact categories of manual testing that can be used.
Unit testing is the process of confirming each program module or component individually. It is often carried out by developers rather than QA engineers since it necessitates in-depth familiarity with the internal program architecture and code.
Testing a subsystem that consists of a few integrating components is known as integration testing. Once the individual parts have been tested and confirmed to function as intended, it’s carried out. It’s done to look for issues with how integrated components interact and communicate with one another.
System testing entails checking the entire structure. Once unit testing is complete, the tester checks the entire system to make sure the application satisfies all requirements for quality.
User acceptance testing is testing carried out by the client to vouch for the system’s compliance with the
Requirements that were previously agreed upon.
Testing using the Black Box Testing methodology is carried out without the knowledge of the program’s internal code or structure. Testing is conducted from the perspective of the client, and the tester is solely aware of the application’s intended inputs and outputs. The tester is unaware of how the program interprets user requests and produces output results.
The testing technique known as “white box testing”, on the contrary, involves the tester is aware of the internal codes and structure. The tester selects inputs, carries out the test, and decides on the proper outputs. White Box Testing is primarily concerned with enhancing the software’s usability and design while also bolstering its security.
Performing manual testing
We can divide the process into six different steps.
The requirement analysis stage should be used to first collect the requirements. As a result, the tester knows the anticipated behavior, what has to be tested, and when it’s possible declares that the problem has been detected.
The second step is to identify and create test cases that will satisfy every need detailed in the project information after the tester gets a clear understanding of the requirements.
Once the test cases are prepared, the tester must discuss them with the project manager and, if necessary, the customer. Before running the test cases, the tester will look over the test cases to identify any bugs and fix them.
Next, the tester runs each test case individually after setting up the environment.
When the test cases run, the tester files a bug report and notifies the relevant developer of any flaws or defects found.
Finally, a thorough test report that contains specific information on the number of flaws or problems is prepared.
Advantages and downsides of manual testing
If we were to describe what’s good about manual testing, we’d simply say: it can do the things that automation cannot.
The majority of problems are found during manual testing, including problems with the application’s appearance and feel. The tester can quickly access visual elements including text, layout, and other components to identify UI and UX problems. Moreover, because there’s no need for any special tools or high-level expertise, this method often has a cheap operational cost.
In manual tests, humans can watch, assess, and also offer insight. This is helpful when it comes to improving user experience.
It’s hard to say the approach is flawless, though. Manual testing takes a lot of time, especially when there are many tests. Additionally, performance testing and load testing are not possible in manual tests.
The difference between manual and automated testing
Apart from the obvious – using and not using automation tools – manual and automated testing are different in their time- and cost-efficiency. Manual testing costs more, but it can work for any application, whereas automation can be implied only to stable systems.
On the other hand, manual testing provides great insights into user experience as it is run completely by humans – on the other side, automated testing won’t leave room for human error.
Also read: Is Manual Data Entry Slowing Down Your Construction Productivity?